Citation ruless
Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO)
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Basic in text citation rules
When you paraphrase someone else's ideas in your own words you must acknowledge them with an in text citation. The citation should fit smoothly within your sentence. Thare are different kinds of in text citations : primary citations (in sentence or in brackets citations), secondary citations (where you are citing information or quotes the author of your reference has taken from source that you have not read) and direct quotes (when you include a sentence or words reproduced from a document in your writing).
Primary in text citations
In-brackets citations rules
 Number of authors Rules (use '&' between authors) Examples
 1 author One author As suggested by previous research (Damasio, 2004), we controlled for ...
 2 authors Both authors In the same study (Bechara & Damasio, 2006) ...
 3 or more authors First author et al., YEAR In the same study (Adolphs et al., 2007) ...
 Corporate author (if abbreviated)    
  - first citation in text in brackets: (United Nations [UN], 2018) The research indicates (United Nations [UN], 2018) ...
  - subsequent citations in brackets: (UN, 2018) ... suggested by recent statististics (UN, 2018) ...
In-sentence citations rules
 Number of authors Rules (use 'and' between authors) Examples
 1 author One author (Year) According to Damasio (2004) ...
 2 authors Both authors (Year) In the study of Bechara and Damasio (2006) ...
 3 or more authors First author et al. (Year) In the study of Adolphs et al. (2007) ...
 Corporate author (if abbreviated)    
  - first citation in text in brackets: (United Nations [UN], 2018) According to United Nations (UN, 2018)...
  - subsequent citations in brackets: (UN, 2018) ... as suggested by recent statististics of UN (2018)...
Authors with the same first name
Authors with the same surname but have different initials, include the first author’s initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.
In-brackets example: least two studies (A. Bechara, 2008; P. Bechara, 2018 ) have suggested that ...
In-sentence example: ... A. Bechara (2008) and P. Bechara (2018) found that ...
Two or more références by the same author
When multiple references have an identical author and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year (a, b, c, etc.), this lower letter is also in the reference entry.
In-brackets example: ... past research (Damasio, 2005, 2008, 2012a, 2012b) have indicated that ...
In-sentence example: For major scholarly publications of Damasio (2005, 2008, 2012a, 2012b) have indicated that ...
Two or more références by different authors (list authors alphabetically)
Order the citations of two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order which they appear in the reference list. Separate the citations with semicolons.
In-brackets example: Some recent studies (Brown & Steer, 2005; Forman, 2003; Jasmin, 2008a, 2012b) have pointed out that ...
In-sentence example: Brown and Steer (2005), Forman (2003) and Jasmin (2008a, 2008b) have pointed out that
One author, multiple références in the same year
In-brackets example: ... as research has shown (Forman, 2003a, 2003b) found that ...
In-sentence example: Some recent studies Forman (2003a, 2003b) have pointed out that ...
The number or sources depend on the purpose of your work. Citation overkill can be distracting and unnecessary. Please avoid excessive references, do not use more than 3 references per each key point. If you need to use more, be sure to indicate the relevant key idea for each reference.
Translated book
In-text, if the document cited is a translation of an original work, the date of publication of the translation book consulted is indicated. If you worked in a resource that is a reprint translation of another text, include both the original year of publication and the year of publication for the translation. (Author of original text, year of publication of the original text/year of publication of the translated text).
In-text citation : (Clark, 1964/2001)
Direct quotes
Direct quotes (fewer than 40 words)
When a direct quotation is incorporated into your text, enclose in "..." and give the exact page number in your citation preceded by p. For quotes across more than one page, use pp.
Somes illustrations:
   - Smith (2001) found that "..." (p. 378), which contributed to the final negative outcome.
   - He argued for what he called "a new intellectual framework" (Smith, 2001, p. 378).
   - Smith (2001) argued that "..." (p. 378).
   - As she postulated, "..." (Jones, 2010, pp. 111–112).
Long direct quotes (40 words or more)
  1. Introduce the quotation first with a colon
  2. Quotation should start on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 inch (1.27 cm) from the left margin
  3. Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation
  4. Use the three spaced ellipsis points (…) for missing words in a sentence, or (. …) if you miss more than a sentence
  5. Cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation with exact page number; or cite the author and year in the narrative before quotation and place only the page number in the brackets after the quotation
Accord to Siegel and Hartzell (2004):
  Trauma and loss requires an understanding of the low road and its connection to patterns of experiences from the past. The passing of unresolved issues from generation to generation produces and perpetuates unnecessary emotional suffering. If our own issues remain unresolved, there is a strong possibility that the disorganization within our minds can createdisorganization in our children’s minds. (p. 183)  
Generally, in order of preference, give Author/s, year, plus:
  1. page numbers (e.g. pp. 55-56 or p. 56)
  2. or paragraph numbers (e.g. para. 6)
  3. or headings (e.g. Discussion section, para. 1)
  4. or shortened headings (e.g. "Mandatory Labelling Has Targeted", para. 4)
Quotations for research participants
If you have conducted personal interviews as part of a research project, your own research data does not count as personal communications: do not include a reference list entry for them in the reference list and do not treat them as personal communications.
For the formatting:
          - fewer than 40 words in quotation marks within the text
          - 40 words or more in a block quotation indented below the text
State in the text that the quotations are from participants.
In focus group discussions, participants described their postretirement experiences, including the emotions associated with leaving work and its affective and practical implications. “Rafael” (64 years old, retired pilot) mentioned several difficulties associated with retirement, including feeling like he was “in a void without purpose . . . it took several months to develop new interests that motivated [him] each day.”
Personal communications
Any personal interview conducted via the following (and unpublished) can be considered “personal communication”: private letters, electronic communications, personal interviews, email, phone interview / conversations, online chats, memos, unrecorded lectures.

Personal communications that are not published or “findable” should not be included in an APA list. Cite personal communications in text only. Instead, personal communication should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide an exact date as possible.
Format: (Author, Initial, communication type, full date if available).
For example:
(B. Smith, phone interview, May 15, 2012).

To preserve the anonymity of the interviewees in your paper the information might be presented as referring to participants by identifiers other than their names such as: their roles (e.g., doctor, costumer), pseudonyms or nicknames, initials, descriptive phrases, letter of the alphabet).
For example:
(Teacher A, personal communication, May 15, 2012).
If you want to include personal interviews in your reference list, then include the interview, the date of the interview, and the type.
Cloyd, A. (2014, July 29). Personal communication [Personal interview].
Citing secondary sources
A primary source reports original content; a secondary source refers to content first reported in another source. Cite the secondary sources sparingly when the original work is out of print, unavailable; or available only in a language that you do not understand.
In the text:
In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.
Examples of in-text secondary citations :
              Seidenberg and McClelland’s study, conducted in 1990 (as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993), shows that ...
              ... as some studies show (Seidenberg & McClelland, as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993).
In the references list :
              Include in the references list : Coltheart, M., Curtis, B. Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and
                                                                     parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589–608.
              ... research has been conducted studying the falling PPH rates in the third stage (Begley, as cited in Featherstone, 1999)
              Begley’s study (as cited in Featherstone, 1999) ...
              Include in the references list : Featherstone, I. E. (1999). Physiological third stage of labour. British Journal of Midwifery, 7, 216-221.
              Fong’s 2003 study (as cited in Bertram, 2009) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people,
              but this depends on how memory is tested.
              Include in the references list : Bertram, S.A. (2009). How we Remember: Testing our capacity to remember.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
For the most current guidelines, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) 
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